Pollination

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Pollination is the process by which pollen is transferred to the female reproductive organs of a plant, thereby enabling fertilization to take place.

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Bee Pollination

another view

Bees typically are fuzzy and carry an electrostatic charge. Both features help pollen grains adhere to their bodies, but they also have specialized pollen-carrying structures; in most bees, this takes the form of a structure known as the scopa, which is on the hind legs of most bees, and/or the lower abdomen (e.g., of megachilid bees), made up of thick, plumose setae. Honey bees, bumblebees, and their relatives do not have a scopa, but the hind leg is modified into a structure called the corbicula (also known as the “pollen basket“). Most bees gather nectar, a concentrated energy source, and pollen, which is high protein food, to nurture their young, and inadvertently transfer some among the flowers as they are working. Euglossine bees pollinate orchids, but these are male bees collecting floral scents rather than females gathering nectar or pollen. Female orchid bees act as pollinators, but of flowers other than orchids. Eusocial bees such as honey bees need an abundant and steady pollen source to multiply.

Bloom – Rose

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A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over a hundred species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.

The name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa, which was perhaps borrowed from Oscan, from Greek ρόδον rhódon (Aeolic βρόδον wródon), itself borrowed from Old Persian wrd- (wurdi), related to Avestan varəδa, Sogdian ward, Parthianwâr.

Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors. They have been also used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops. Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover and slope stabilization. They also have minor medicinal uses.

The common dandelion – Taraxacum officinale.

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Clicked at Munger, Bihar, India

A flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). It can be found growing in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of water ways, and other areas with moist soils. T. officinale is considered a weed, especially in lawns and along roadsides, but it is sometimes used as a medical herb and in food preparation. Common dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver tufted fruits that disperse in the wind called “blowballs” or “clocks” (in both British and American English).

                                                          Dandelion greens, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 188 kJ (45 kcal)
9.2 g
Sugars 0.71 g
Dietary fiber 3.5 g
0.7 g
2.7 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.

(64%)

508 μg

(54%)

5854 μg

13610 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(17%)

0.19 mg

Riboflavin (B2)
(22%)

0.26 mg

Niacin (B3)
(5%)

0.806 mg

Pantothenic acid (B5)
(2%)

0.084 mg

Vitamin B6
(19%)

0.251 mg

Folate (B9)
(7%)

27 μg

Choline
(7%)

35.3 mg

Vitamin C
(42%)

35 mg

Vitamin E
(23%)

3.44 mg

Vitamin K
(741%)

778.4 μg

Minerals
Calcium
(19%)

187 mg

Iron
(24%)

3.1 mg

Magnesium
(10%)

36 mg

Manganese
(16%)

0.342 mg

Phosphorus
(9%)

66 mg

Potassium
(8%)

397 mg

Sodium
(5%)

76 mg

Zinc
(4%)

0.41 mg

Other constituents
Water 85.6 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Marigold – Tagetes, Genda Phool

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The name Tagetes is from the name of the Etruscan Tages, born from the plowing of the earth.

Common name in English, “marigold”, is derived from “Mary’s gold”, a name first applied to a similar plant native to Europe, Calendula officinalis.

In Nepal, it is called ‘शयपत्री’ that means hundred-leafed flower, referring to its many florets per head.